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Dixie Chapter, Daughters of the Confederacy, of Ander- 
son, S. C, was organized May 14th, 1900. The objects for 
which this Association was formed are Social, Literary, 
Benevolent and Historical. To collect Records and Inci- 
dents of the Confederate War not elsewhere chronicled, also 
to aid in the preservation of its History and the perpetua- 
tion of the principles involved in that struggle. 

With these objects in view this our second "Booklet" is 
offered to the public, and we trust will be as well received as 
the first. 

cq:N'r,3£fc : ^FS. 

Officers of Dixie Chapter -•_■,. 5 

Photograph of Wade Hampton -----.__ q 
A Tribute ----..__ 7 

The Dixie Chapter, U. D. C. 

Inaugural Address ....". 


Sketch of Old Confederate Treasury - - - - ... 


Address of Welcome ■- - - - ' . 


The Work of the South in Politics - - - - . 


Tenting on the Old Camp Ground - - 


Pickett's Charge - - 


A Comparison of American Slavery with that of Greece and Rome 


One May Day - 42 


Stonewall Jackson— The Man of Power 47 


Monument to Confederate Dead - - - - ... . . - 53 
The Entombment of Jefferson Davis 54 


Southern Women Before, During and After the War - - - - 55 


Southern War Songs _ . (54 


Yellow Jasmine - - - ------... 70 

Legend of the Yellow Jasmine 71 



■Officers of tbe Dixie tfbapter, 1902^=1903. 

Mrs. Pea! Rogers Fant ....President. 

Mrs. J. A. Brock 1st Vice-President. 

Mrs. W. A. Chapman 2nd Vice President. 

Miss Zula Brock Secretary. 

Mrs. J. E. Breazeale .....Treasurer. 

Miss Eleanor Cochran Historian. 

Mrs. A. P. Johnstone •••.... . ..Gleaner, 

Mrs. Minnie Edwards Russell ............;.. .'Reporter 

Mrs. J. M. Paget Auditor. 


Died at Columbia, South Carolina, April 11th, 19<)2. 


H {Tribute- 


Toast him in Lite's choicest wine, — 
Offer garlands at his shrine ! 

Warrior of God's own ano"nting, 
Archetype of manhood thou ! 
Deeds of valor, deeds of daring, 
Earned the laurels for thy brow. 

Hero, statesman, soldier, Christian, 
Angels gemmed for thee a crown ! 
Man may conquer, man may vanish, 
Pure and fadeless thy renown. 
Thus the daughters of fair Dixie, 
Offer garlands at thy grave — 
None more faithful, true and brave! 

:• ., 

Hbe HHxie Chapter, in. H>. C. 


Our emblematic flow'r shall be 

As fair as Southern chivalry; 

As pure as truth, and shaped like stars, 

To keep in mind our sons of Mars, 

Who gave lives, who did not pause, 

To do and die, for the "Lost Cause! " 

A flow'r whose incense is like prayer 

Arising on the golden air. 

And like brave Women's hearts as bright 

As those which shone throughout war's night! 

Who clung and twined to sorrows' rod, 

And turned with trust and faith to God. 

In mem'ry of that sacred hour, 

We choose the clinging Jas'mine flower. 

And to perpetuate the deeds 

Of Southern men, and widow's weeds, 

Of women brave, and soldiers tried, 

Who, for pure honor fought and died, 

Our motto be engraved in gold, 

And to our children's children told, — 




"ffnauoural Hooress of ZlDrs. pearl IRoocjers tf ant, pres* 
ioent HUxie Cbapter, Hnoerson, 5. <L, 3an. 31, 1902. 

There is a word in Southern tongue that seems to hold 
a magic power. When whispered to a Southern heart it 
thrills it like a mystic touch and makes it glow in the shad- 
ow of a strange mysterious spell. What wondrous word, 
I hear you ask, can hold such subtle power? 

I see a broad and fair land, land of mighty trees and sun- 
ny flowers, blue sky and soft caressing bi-eezes, a land that 
nature once saw in dreams, and then awoke to make real 
the beautiful vision. What name brings up the picture? 'Tis 
the magic word— Dixie. 

In the distance, on the breezes, strains of music and a grand 
wild exultation! Unconquerable pride, sublime defiance, a 
noble daring to stake even life and honorfor loss of country. 
A deep exulting hope of victory are the emotions that throb 
in the martial strain — and the stirring magic name is Dixie, 
ever Dixie! 

Again, I see a battlefield o'er which the pitying night has 
thrown her mantle of darkness. A spirit walks o'er the 
field, and stooping, dips her pen in blood to write upon her 
scroll. It is Fairie's list of heroes dead, and across the names 
in shining letters is written the glorious name — Dixie. 

But again, the scene has changed, and I see on the altar 
of patriotism an offering of love. A band of faithful wo- 
men has met, to "laurel the graves" of heroes with the love 
and tears of devotion. A deep strong love for the past, a 
Lender reverence for its broken ideals, and a faithful longing 
to keep alive those ideals in the hearts of Southerners, and 
Lhey meet under a glorious name — again it is the magic 



word — "Dixie." This Dixie is as brave and true in accom- 
plishing her work as the great Dixie of '65. 

In electing me to the Presidency 3'ou have conferred upon 
me at once, an honor and a duty. The honor, I appreciate; 
the duty, I hope, with your help, to fulfill. In showing such 
confidence in me, however, you have given me the right to 
expect much of you, and I trust we will be as one heart, ever 
loving and devoted to everything expressed by Dixie. 

In behalf of the Chapter, I wish to thank the retiring Pres- 
ident and officers for their tireless energy, unwavering devo- 
tion, and the faithfulness with which they have served the 
Dixie. The work that our Chapter has accomplished in the 
past two years is a. wonderful record of which we have a 
right to feel proud. 

In the unselfish devotion and energy of one of our own 
members (Miss Lenora Hubbard), we have already been 
given a noble example of patience and fidelity, and as we lov- 
ingly gaze upon our monument to our Confederate dead, we 
know her aspirations have been crowned with success, and 
we believe that our hopes and ambitions cannot fail if we 
work with Love as our watchword, Patience our guard, 
and Victory our hope and expectation. 



Sketch of ©ID Confederate Hreasurp 


This historic building is a fit banqueting place for the South 
Carolina Division of the United Daughters of the Confederacy. 
Its historic association with the City of Anderson dates back 
lor more than fifty years, when it was the educational center, 
HOt only of this, but of all the Piedmont region, and as the 
|ohnson Female University, it stood without a peer for the 
education of the daughters of the State this side of the far- 
l.tmed Barhamville. 

I kit war's "rude alarm rang" through the land, and its 
doors were closed, while the sons of the State flocked to the 
hunt and the daughters stood by with tear-dimmed eyes 
find aching hearts; but hands active in ministering to the 
wants of the dear ones in the field. . The exigencies of the 



service in 1864, demanded the establishing of a branch of the 
Confederate Treasury in Columbia, S. C, the branch for the 
printing and signing of the Confederate notes. When Sher- 
man started on his raid of pillage, rapine, and burning 
through this State it was removed from Columbia to this 
building, then the property of Frazier, Trenholm & Co., one 
of the members of which, Mr. George A. Trenholm, beingthe 
Confederate Secretary of the Treasury. To this building was 
brought the outfit with the lithographic stones on which the 
bills were printed, and was put in charge of W. Y. Leach, of 
Charleston. The bills were signed by young ladies, most of 
whom were from Virginia. Four oftheseyoungladies board- 
ed with ourhonored venerable townsman, Hon.B. F. Cray- 
ton. Miss Kesha Haynes, of Portsmouth, Va., signed the 
$500 bills, Miss Savage, Miss Crump,a niece of Judge Crump, 
and Miss Elliott, of Winnsboro, S. C, signed the other de- 

On the appearance of the raiders on the 1st day of May, 
1865, these stones were thrown into a deep well at the 
south-west corner of this building. 

The raiders spent two days and nights in town, the rob- 
bing being done just before leaving. Mr. Leach, havingsome 
gold on hand, gave each of the young ladies $20, and thegen- 
tlemen connected with the department, $100 a piece. 

After the close of the war, the doors of this building 
were again thrown open to the youths of our land, and dif- 
ferent educators "weilded the scepter." Professor Ligon 
taught here many years and his memory is sacred and dear 
to many of Anderson's men and women. But the well and 
its contents were long since forgotten until the Patrick Mil- 
itary institute was opened in this building by Col. John B. 
Patrick, and it was then that the well was cleaned out and 
revealed its hidden treasures. Pieces of these lithographic 



stones were recovered and a number of our citizens now have 
them in their possession. 

As the purpose of our organization and meetings together 
is to recall and perpetuate the memories of those heroic days, 
in which our fathers were the actors, and during which they 
m ade four years of the most glorious history the world h as ever 
seen, which will beread with wonder and delight while men 
and women honor brave deeds, heroic action, and love of 
country, so we gather here in this historic building, the 
scene of one of the dramas in the tragedy of the life and death 
of the new born nation, "than which none ever rose so fair 
or fell so pure." 

Hooress of TKflelcome to ©augbters of Soutb Carolina 
2>i\nsion, 111. HJ..G. at Snoerson. 


Should the angel of creation's dawn pass over the life of 
men to-day no single phase of human existence would be 
found in its primal form, no single expression of human ac- 
tivity would shine out in its light of that first great day. 
The great everlasting laws of nature are indeed the same 
lust orders of the creating force of life, but as the crimson 
lights of that first wondrous morning of the creation have 
brightened to the midday run of man's great, glorious pres- 
ent, so in the changing lights of life have laws found new 
expressions. Development has been the one returning uni- 
versal secret and change, the one unchanging current in the 
Onward flow of life. Yet if we seek in the massive pile of broken 
Creeds and dead philosophies, if we search far beneath the 
i ii ins of shattered schools of knowledge and destroyed sys- 
tems of religion, we find that time is powerless to shake the 



deeper nature of man, and however changed may be their 
temporal expression, the great instincts of the race are from 
everlasting, to everlasting. From soul to soul, and age to 
age, there runs one grand connecting thread of human hope 
and human will and human stirring toward the light. 

Forward is the world's great cry, and forward men are 
pressing on, yet strange deep truth, our every thought, 
springs from the stretch of life behind. In ages past our fu- 
ture was made, in life far distant our present was born, for 
one age springs from a thousand ages and inherits a form from 
each, and what gratitude does the present give for this rich, 
wide heritage from the past? 'Tis a strange world worship 
of the dead, for creeds may change and religions fail, but 
humanity kneels at the shrine of its dead. For men must 
love, and love must live, so in the temple that is built in the 
lives of men they give to the dead even a holier love than 
was given in life to them. For when souls have passed 
there 's a strange sweet light that falls o'er the shadows of 
sin and we, looking backward, see the lives of men wrapped 
in strange new garments of loveliness. Across the distance 
of the passing years all the rough edges are smoothed away, 
and time, with her softening, soothing hand, carves out of 
the past her own ideal, then leads mankind to the mystic 
shrine and bids them kneel and love. And as men must "love 
and love must live, we cling to the dead by worshiping 

In our daily life we may struggle and fall, struggle and 
rise again, but the faltering feet of men must pass on through 
the echoing temple of life. As. they pass through the halls of 
this temple of life, they will find every shrine has its worship- 
er, for some kneel before the image of love, some offer up 
life on the altar of hope, pride, ambition, or fame. But there 's 
one holy priest in the temple of life whose summons to wor- 



ship never falls unheard, and men and nations and ages have 
all to kneel at the shrine he tends. This wonderful priest is 
memory, and the shrine he tends is the shrine of the dead, 
and whether his signal to kneel is heard in the first warm 
(lush of youth's battle with life, or strikes on the sterner 
manhood's heart, or falls with a tenderer call on the tatter- 
ing soul of three score years, it is ever the same, all turn 
aside to worship the glorious dead. 

Ami throughout the South has the priest's choice run; the 
great High Priest of the world's past life, calling not only 
our land but the world; so heart to heart, and soul to soul, 
we are gathered today at the sacred shrine of the South to 
worship her dead. We daughters belong to a sacred band 
that would teach this worship to all mankind, for the 
South's great wonderful past must be known, and loved 
.iiid worshiped in the assemblage of future ages. 

We stand on the narrow ledge that divides the past from 
Lhe future years. Our hands clasp each, and our life and 
work form the link of the unbroken years. And as we stand 
on this vantage ground, if we cling to the larger, fuller 
hope, when our hearts reach out in the future years to 
gather the dreams to be realized, there are rare sweet 
moments which bring to us the union of a thousand 
future years, all kneeling in love and reverence and whisper- 
ing through the hearts and lives of their own great men, the 
worship of our dead. This is the vision that thrills our 
work, the faith that the future shall noble be, and grander 
.ind more heroic in life as the great broad work of the 
religion we give the worship of a noble dead. And if we 
turn to the darkening past, from which all our inspira- 
I ion is drawn, there's a faint sweet strain that floats up to 
tis and thrills every hope and prayer. Now our hearts beat 
l:i si, for the martial strain sweeps over the years with a 




cheering ring; then the music softens and leaves our hearts 
vibrating to a song that is ended in tears. 

Again we look toward the years behind, and we see a land 
fair and happy in peace; but the picture changes, the shad- 
ows fall, the air is darkened with strife and death; the flow- 
ers shrink from the stain of blood, and perishing heroes have 
not availed for the land that is dreary and desolate. 

Yet again, if we look in the nearer years, there appears a 
band of devoted lives that would care for the living and care 
for the dead of the South's great men who dared. 

And the name of the song, and the land, and the band is 
the name that we all must love so well, the name that is a 
symbol for the grandest life, the name that will cause the 
world to kneel, the name that will flash throughout the ages 
to come with a light that is holy and clear. And as we are 
one in our love for the dead and one in our work for the 
future years for Dixie, the song and the land and the band 
give you the heartiest welcoming hand and the happiest 
greeting to all. 

TTbe TKHorfe of tbe South in politics. 


It has long been an established fact that as a man's envi- 
ronments are, so is the man himself. This is true, not only 
of a single man, but of nations as well. 

The conditions which surround the North and South being 
so radically different, it follows, as a law of nature, that 
they should differ. The tendency of the Northerner has al- 
ways been to gather in towns and villages with his village 
moots, while the inclination of the Southerner was to live 
apart from the world on his own plantation, with his broad 
fertile fields spread out around him, surrounded by his own 



family and his slaves. The North with her cold climate had 
no use for the slave; while the South with her warm, genial 
climate, her cotton and tobacco fields, found that slaves 
were just what she needed. 

The adoption of the Constitution, the definite form of 
government for both sections, would naturally be the occa- 
sion for promoting and bringing to light these diversities. 
Immediately following the adoption of the Constitution, we 
see the conservative tendency of the Southerner shown 
in the doctrine of States Rights which they defended so 


The South believed that each state government should 
have all the powers and privileges of the general govern- 
ment; the North, on the other hand, held that the power 
should be centralized in the general government and that the 
power of the individual states should be limited. Either of 
these opinions were lawful, as the Constitution left the 
question of slavery and States Rights undecided. But the 
principal man that formed the Constitution were from that 
portion of the country in favor of States Rights. 

The South came into power with the adoption of the Con- 
stitution and furnished the first Chief Magistrate for the Uni- 
ted States. In the South, country life preserved its aristocratic 
forms, and from this portion of the country came some of the 
most eminent statesmen of the period immediately follow- 
ing the Revolution, Washington, Jefferson, Randolph, Madi- 
son and Patrick Henry. At this time, the South was also 
the richest as well as the most populous section of the coun- 
try. During Washington's first administration, party spirit 
did not run high; the parties were then in process of for- 
mation. The antagonism of Jefferson and Hamilton was 
growing; Jefferson was laying deep the foundation of true 




JS thisadm i"f ration, France set np a republic and 
expected the Umted States to come to her assistance as she 
* waXfr WaSl ™S to »'s ca'm, coo, mind saw that 

F n ,1 rema '" " eUtral and aTOid double The 

French Master came over and enlisted soldier, anyhow 
Washington recalled them, thus we see that bv the wisdom' 
and firmness of a Southern President, another W^s 
avoided ^ A struggle in which if the United States had" taken 
pa.t .„ its weakness and youth, might have made it instead 
oftheneh proud nation it is today, a eolonv of a foreign 
power; or at least not so prominent and powerful as to-day 
to tw g I 1 f administration, we see the South coming 
to the front and latterly denouncing the Sedition Act This 
Act provided that those who should unlawfully combine or 

far P r m T" StthegOVernment ' ° r "To-idntter anything 
false or malicious against ,t, should be imprisoned and fined 

JoLTV" u l T i0 ' ati0n ° f the first Amendment to the 
Constitution, which states clearly that Congress shall make 
no law abridging the freedom of speech or of the press The 
opposition to this in the South was taken up bv Jefferson 
and Madison. They saw that the Northerners or Federal 
ists were longing to set up a kingdom and that these laws 
^r^fPfh^wouldleaduptoit. Jefferson said that he 
believed these were experiments on the American mind to 
sect it would bear violation to the Constitution If this 
were true then another act of the same kind would follow 
making Adams President for life. The succession in hi 
family would be established, and finally the verv members of 
the Senate would hold office for life. The Virginia a „ d Ken- 
tucky legislatures offered resolutions against this Act The 
former were drawn up by Madison, the latter, by Tefferson 
Although the Sedition Act was not repealed, but being tern 
porary, expired by its own legislation, yet there is no ques- 



tion but that the action of Jefferson and Madison had great 
force. Their opposition no doubt prevented its becoming a 
precedent for other laws. 

The purchase of Louisiana set up the principles that Con- 
gress may violate the Constitution if the mass of the voters 
approve." Jefferson labored for a long time to make the, pur- 
chase constitutional. The South favored it; the North op- 
posed it, since it destroyed the balance of power between 
the North and South. It stirred up the Federal press ofNew 
England to clamor for a separation of the States. The vast 
extent of the South, the richness of the soil, the mildness of 
the climate, the ruling place they held in politics, led to the 
belief that it would at no distant day outstrip the North. 
Jefferson's most lasting work as Chief Magistrate was his 
diplomacy in purchasing for the Union the boundless terri- 
tory beyond the Mississippi and the free navigation of that 
river. Although it originated many of the most perplexing 
questions which have agitated national politics, as those re- 
lating to slavery in this territory, and acquisitions from 
Mexico, all these have been amply compensated by the above, 
and countless other benefits. 

The one great error of Jefferson's administration was the 
Embargo Act. The Southerners recalling how Great Brit- 
ain had searched our ships, impressed our seamen, killed our 
citizens, and insulted our towns, said that England would 
feel the loss of naval stores and supplies and that France 
and Spain would also suffer. The Northerners said that it 
was a blow aimed at the commerce of New England. The 
South at first upheld this, but now, when she came to suffer, 
was opposed to it. This showed a spirit of selfishness on 
the part of the South, equaled only by the action of the 
North, when they wished to give up the Mississippi river 
for twenty-five years in order to obtain a treaty with Spain. 
When England oppressed the Americans so unjustly, and 



asserted her rights to search American ships, the North was 

vor PO ont t0 rf ng ( t0 wa V'° rredress; the South -« » ""- 

«nL c Lei to" " Ct f ^° n ° r a " d sdf "P— «tion should 
mute citizens to arms for their country alike, when once the 
resolve is taken. Not thus, however was the North pre 
pared to reason. Pride, prejudice, inflexibility of tlper" 
d.sappomted ambition, and the determination of State S 

££ t C away ; + . The New En « land *»**■*» -\ th 

it, • ? ta ga.nst the preparations. The New England 
Federahsts bitterly lamented the advance of democra v and 

Sstat Pri "t ,eS , A ' th ° Ughby thJS "«. -"h- the 
war I s a , t6S °Z B " g,aml S a ™ ed ^Jthing.yet the effect of the 
tZ'I indicate our equality and independence among 

he nations o the world. It gave to us a position of dignit, 
It was a wholesome agent in promoting national un fv in 
developmg patriotism and courage, and quieted fo ma, 
years sectional discord. y 

Madison's administration was now slowly coming to an 
end; it had been an eventful one, full of strange viclitude" 
but joy came at last, and long tribulation brought a wd- 

ZZi r T%r7 s :r e than America had kn °- *«* ™ - 

once more 1 1 T T "T Stea ™ y S aini »g g™"d, and 
once moie a Southern President, James Monroe, of Virginia 
was elected. He was the bosom friend of Madison and Tet 
ferson, and the last of the famous Virginia line 

«, v T' ,gS " P the °l uestion w »>ich has agitated so much 
the North a „d the South, the Tariff question, which ha 
been the "bone of contention" for over seventv-five years 
and to-day „ the leading question of American politics The 
North was, and is, in favor of a high protective tariff to en- 
courage home manufactures. She would impoverish the 
South in order that she herself might grow rich The south 
although strongly opposed to the tariff cared not so much 



to convert the North, as to be let alone. Manufactures, 
modern and material progress did not interest them. They 
believed that protection, as now put forward, meant hang- 
ing a sword over their section. They said that manufac- 
tures had protection enough already, that it was time to 
look out for the farmers and shippers. Our conditions are 
not those of Great Britain, burdened with an overplus of 
population her people must manufacture or emigrate; but 
we have no surplus population to provide for. With vast 
and limited stretches of vacant lands, there is a livelihood 
for every man who will till the soil. The North said manu- 
factures were a great expense, and that in case of war, she 
must be helped. But when the war did come, of what bene- 
fit to the South were the manufactures of the North? Still 
the quarrel goes on, still the North clamors for protection 
for the "infant industries," despite the fact that the indus- 
tries of the United States excel those of any other country. 
This is only a pretense to screen her selfishness. 

The interests of the North and South have been gradually 
diverging. The number of states admitted previous to this 
time, had balanced each other, slave and free, but now Mis- 
souri was to be admitted, and the question arose whether 
she should be slave or free. The South saw that she would 
lose her majority in the Senate without the admission of 
more slave states. Again she brings forward her doctrine 
of States Rights, and says that Congress has no right to in- 
terfere, but that the individual states should decide for 
themselves. The struggle raged for a long time, until through 
the efforts of Henry Clay, the Missouri Compromise was in- 
troduced. This fixed by law the division of the country into 
a, free North and a slave holding South. The Southern leaders 
of the day were chivalrous and honorable, but the terms of 
the Compromise they preferred to offer themselves. It had 



Northern basis of origin, but was amended,** has been said 
by a Southerner. 

Mams, the next President, began to recommend appropri- 
ations for internal improvement. The North was divided 
upon the extension of implied constitutional power The 
South a ways opposed to strengthening the general govern- 
ment, beheves that the narrow or strict view of the constitu 
tion was more favorable to its interests 

* J^ tari ! ha i d b i eC ° nie m ° re and - more objectionable to the 
South, particularly South Carolina. She accordingly took 

ofTohnT r\u Wn h r ?' "^ thr ° Ugh the instrumentality 
nJt ?il'u alh 1 ° Un ' decIared the 'J2ariffLaw"nulUnd void " 
1 he South has long been abused for her Nullification Act 
yet she has a Northern precedent. In the Hartford Conven- 
tion of 1814 we find the following measures adopted: "In 
cases of deliberate, dangerous and palpable infractions of 

^^'^^^f 1 ^^ 80 ^ 6 ^^- 019 State a«d 
libeities of the people, it is not only the right but the 

n^Crr Tf/° interP0Sef ° r itS P-tectio^thfrna ! 
ner best calculated to secure that end.'' This is the whole 
doctrine of Nullification, the abuse of which South Carolina 
has so long borne Affairs were becoming desperate when 
Henry Clay, ''the Great Pacificator," again took matters in 
his hands and offered a compromise, which effected nothing 
Clay tailed to understand that there was something more 
potent than mere discontent with the tariff at the bottom 
of the troub e-the necessities of slavery-and that this com- 
promise could only adjourn the coming crisis. The South 
being m the minority, having a peculiar institution, African 

RflTsV S \°° le u fr ° m the be * inni "S in ^e States 
Rights theory naturally tended to conservation in politics 
to making much of protective guarantees and to holding the 
general goverment within the limits of the Constitution 



Slavery had been recognized as a baisis of representation, 
and by a mandate for the delivery of fugitives in the written 
compact of compromises, called the Constitution. The South 
still holding to the constitutionality of slavery, saw that she 
was again losing ground in the Senate; To recover this, 
she thought to enlarge her territory by the annexation of 
Texas. With this end in view, a large number of Southern- 
ers emigrated to Texas and fought for her independence. Of 
the fifty-seven signers of the Declaration of Independence of 
Texas,' fifty were from the Southern States and only, three 
were native Mexicans. After having gained her indepen- 
dence, the next thing was to gain her admission into the 
Union. A treaty of annexation was arranged, but was re- 
jected by the Senate. The South then determined to make an- 
nexation the touch-stone of the next Presidential election, and 
James K. Polk received the nomination. Jackson, the Pres- 
ident at the time, was a true Southerner, but as a defender 
of the Union, he ment to keep slavery and freedom in equilib- 
rium. When the Abolitionists raised their war-cry, he 
threw up the breast works to protect slave-holders. This 
was the annexation of Texas. By a clever ruse of his, only 
the day before the close of his official term, he sent to the 
Senate his nomination of a Texas minister. In this the Sen- 
ate concurred, and Texas was recognized as an independent 
State. Texas was the last slave State admitted, and she is 
the only truly independent State which has ever entered the 
Union. No others, not even the original thirteen, have ever 
exercised the power of making treaties and sending embassa- 
dors, or making war. 

This, however, is the last great triumph of the South. 
With the administration of Polk, it begins gradually to lose 
power. The old political leaders are dying out, and new 
ones are taking their places. John C. Calhoun died in 1850, 





two years latter, and the other two of the "immortal trio" 
have joined him. 

The question of slavery in Northern territory is again 
brought up. The admission of Kansas and Nebraska gave 
rise to a long political discussion, which at last resulted in 
the Kansas and Nebraska Bill. This was introduced by a 
Northern man, Stephens A. Douglass. It left the question 
of slavery to the people of the two States, as the majority 
might decide. This was a repeal of the Missouri Compro- 
mise, and was the beginning of the end-the fatal step of the 
South on the road to destruction. As said above, the South 
did not initiate this Kansas and Nebraska iniquity, but un- 
wisely in her greed for gain, accepted what Northern recre- 
ancy had proffered. The result was the bloody outrages 
that occurred in these States. In these scenes of strife were 
trained the incendiaries, who afterwards invaded Virginia, 
under John Brown— that movement which finally culmina- 
ted in a disruption of the Union. 

"It was not the passage of the personal liberty laws, not 
the circulation of incendiary documents, not the raid of John 
Brown, not the operation of the unjust and unequal Tariff 
Laws that constituted the intolerable grievances; but it was 
the systematic and persistent struggle to deprive the South- 
ern States of equality in the Union that led to the Secession 
movement." Slavery was the incitement which developed 
widely divergent fundamental differences as to the character 
and function of the General Government, rather than the 
cause of Secession. Jefferson Davis says: "What resource 
or justice, what assurance of tranquility, what guarantee 
of safety now remained for the South? No alternative re- 
mained except to seek security out of the Union which they 
had in vain tried to obtain in it." During the whole period 
the South was undergoing these injustices it remained 

intensley loyal to the Union. The strong defense of the Con- 
stitution, the resistance to encroachments upon it, were the 
only means for the preservation and perpetuity of the Union. 
What the South has held is that the best preservative of the 
Union is a faithful adherence to the Constitution, and that 
to vest in Congress, in the President and in the Supreme 
Court, the right of determining finally and exclusively the 
extent of the powers delegated to the Government, is incom- 
patible with the integrity and rights of the States and the 
limitations of the Constitution. When it appeared to the 
South that there was utter hopelessness in any effort to con- 
serve the Constitution and the equality of the States, or to 
have them recognized in the administration of Federal af- 
fairs, the sole alternative was submission to or acquiescence 
in the Revolution which had been wrought, or an effort to 
secure the benefits of the Government as originally constitu- 
ted. The Southern States therefore, quit the Union to check 
centralization, to save the principles of the Constitution, and 
to restore Government of earlier days. 

Under the circumstances, the war was inevitable. The 
men who denounced Jefferson Davis and the Southern Lead- 
ers as conspirators against the Union and traitors to the 
Government, do not realize that they are exactly the same 
kind of traitors, which George Washington, the Adamses 
and Hancock would have been if Great Britain had been 
as successful in subjugating the Colonies to her despotic 
principles, as the Northern States were, in subjecting the 
Southern States to these same principles. 

The people of the South have surrendered in the war what 
the war has conquered. It has silenced forever the question 
of Slavery, this will never again agitate American Politics, 
the doctrine of Secession was extinguished, yet there is still 
something left them. They cannot be expected to give up 





what was not involved in the war, and voluntarily abandon 
their political schools for the dogma upheld by the conquer- 
ing party. Allis not lost, a great struggle for Constitutional 
Liberty yet remains, and there are still missions of dutv 
and glory for the South. The last remarks of President 
Davis, when a fugitive, and before the doors of a prison 
closed upon him, were; "The principles for which we con- 
tended is bound to re-assert itself, though it mav be at 
another time and in another form." Just when this time 
will come, if come it will, no one can predict. But no one 
can deny that the South is rapidly gaining the position 
which she formerlv held. 

Renting on tbe ©lt> Camp^rounfc. 


[Occasionally in the Dixie Chapter the usual exercises are varied bv a sneeial nrn 

™ T W a r ^ the PreSident " ° He ° f these was -titled "Around £ X 
Fire The fo owmg paper was the introduction to the "Talcs that were Told >' 
as it was essential in carrying out the spirit of the occasion that some historic 
spot be selected for the Camping Ground.] nistonc 

No more suitable spot could be found than the place 
where we pitch our camp tonight. Yonder runs the Rapidan 
River in the distance, and these wooded heights will light 
the camp fires nobly. 

Tread lightly, speak softly, for this historic ground is be 
dewed with the sacred blood of the martvred heroes of our 
Lost Cause. Over at Chancellorsville, five or six miles to the 
east. Stonewall Jackson yeilded his life for the South 
Down there at Germania Ford, Grant, with over a hundred 

thousand men at his back, stole across the river at night, 
thinking to take our gallant Lee by surprise, and cut his 
army off from Richmond. But vigilant scouts notified him 
that the enemy had crossed on pontoons, in the night of 
March 5, 1864. Grant's road to Richmond lay just over the 
way, running by Spottsylvania C. H., and he was nearer to 
Richmond than Lee's army stood. Across to the west of us, 
from their camp at Gordonsville, came the Confederates. 
This road, nearest our camping-ground, is the old "Stone 
Turnpike," while just a few miles to the south is the "Plank 
Road," both running parallel to Fredericksburg, and both 
intersecting Grant's road to Richmond, while right over yon- 
der is where the Stone Turnpike crosses it at the "Old Wil- 
derness Tavern." Knowing his weakness and the enemy's 
strength, Lee determined to go across the country at this 
point and meet the foe in the Wilderness, where the artillery 
would be of little use, except on the roads, and his massive 
columns could move but slowly through the dense thickets. 
So for two days they fought in these pathless woods. 
Bwell's corps came up by this Stone Turnpike, Hill's and 
Longstreet's by the Plank Roads, while Early's and John- 
son's divisions were well to the front. Through these woods 
the gallant soldiers dashed. There Heth and Wilcox, of 
Hill's division, with 15,000 men, defeated five divisions of 
the enemy, numbering 45,000. 

Then Burnside's, with his famous 9th corps, drove our boys 
back, Hill and Wilcox, having suffered serverely, were re- 
treating, when at this crisis, Gen. Lee dashed in among the 
fugitives, callingon the men to rally and follow him. They 
begged him to go to the rear, promising that they would set 
things straight. Now came two fresh divisions of Hill's 
corps, Gen. Anderson commanding, and three more under 



Gen. Longstreet. They gallantly advanced and the enemy 
was completely routed. While they were pursuing the enem}' 
in turn, with Gen. Jenkins' brigade at the head, a bodv of 
Confederates in the woods mistook them for Union soldiers 
and fired on them, severely Wounding Gen. Longstreet and 
killing Gen. Mieah Jenkins, of South Carolina. 

The wind softly sighs through the tree tops a sad requiem 
to the dead, in that he died so young! Six days laterGen. 
Edward Johnson was captured. The enemy had made a 
heavy attack on E well's front and broke the line of Johnson's 
division. Gen. Rodes sent out a call for more troops. Lee 
sent Col. Venable to bring Harris's Mississippi Brigade. 
Lee met them as they came at the double-quick and rede at 
the head of the brigade until under fire, when a round shot 
passed so near him that the Mississippians begged him to go 
back. Then he said, "If you will promise me to drive these 
people from our works I will go back." The brigade shouted 
the promise, which they faithfully kept. Venable says of 
them: "Never did a brigade go into fiercer battle under 
greater trials ; never did a brigade do its duty more nobly." 

A few days before Phil. Sheridan was sent with his superb 
force of cavalry to ride around the Confederate lines, destroy- 
ing bridges and tearing up railroads. The gallant J. E. B> 
Sjbuact met him eight miles from Richmond with a very in- 
ferior force, and there at Yellow Tavern the brave Confeder- 
ate hero was mortally wounded. 

Qften when the line was lagging weary and worn with 
marching, sometimes in the driving rain or chilling snow, 
his musical voice could be heard cheering the hearts of the 
tired soldiers. But no more will the sweet strains of his 
favorite songs, "Lorena", "Life On The Ocean Wave", or "Her 
Bright Smile Haunts Me Still", be heard on the march or 
around the camp fire. The tidal wave of death which started 

dixie . 


at Chancellorsville, near the Wilderness, May, 1863, rolled 
on until it overtook him too and overwhelmed the most gal- 
lant cavalry leader of the Confederacy. 

0, fatal Wilderness! Jackson, Jenkins, Stuart, almost in 
bugle call of each other, they "passed over the river." 

So here again we pitch our camp on this historic ground. 
Night's sombre curtains have wrapped the world in their 
shadowy folds. The low evening wind bears in musical 
numbers its sweet symphony to the listening ear. High 
overhead the stars are just beginning to swing out their pale 
lanterns in the overarching dome. Here and there against 
the fitful shadow's, gleams the witchingglow of dancing fire- 
light that flickers over the sylvan scene, and thestately pines 
stand out like tall, dark sentinels to guard our slumbers. A 
distant murmur comes over the water and almost we can 
hear again the tramp, tramp of marching armies up this old 
Stone Turnpike. So where the tents gleam whitely on their 
dark background, we will gather closer to the dying embers 
and hear the tales that are told of the heroes of old in the 
days gone by as we sit "Around the Camp Fire" once more. 

flMcfeett's Cbarae. 


[historian of the dixie chapter, u. d, c] 

There is in the universal life no moment of rest, no possi- 
ble pause, no motionless existance. 

Backward or forward, we must hurry on, upward or 
downward, the struggle must be an everlasting motion. 
Atl ion is the one all-compelling law of life, for where there is 



Hfe there can be no rest. If we search. the truths of the scien- 
tific world we find that the harmony of the heavens is secur- 
ed only by the millions of stars being driven on, on in their 
everlasting motion: no rest, no pause is in the universe of 

Again, from the lowest stageof unconscious life to the high- 
est manifestation of self-conscious, willing existence, thepen- 
altyoflifeis restlessness, change, development. The blade 
of grass must grow or die; the souls of men must develop or 
shrivel up, for in all the universe there is no standstill except 
in dead matter, and where growth ends there death begins. 

This law of change is the secret of the rise and fall of na- 
tions. One principle will take hold of the people, grow, de- 
velop, and rule them until the growth ends. Then the dead 
principle is pushed aside by one that holds within itself vi- 
tal energy. Yet, the question naturally arises, what would 
result if, in a newly born nation, two elements should spring 
into life and develop side by side? Inevitably there will be 
but one result — fierce, uncompromising struggle between the 
two until one surrenders. This, as Mr. Wendling has so 
strongly argued, was the deep-seated cause of our Civil War. 

Against each other in blazing contrast were the principles 
of Puritanism and Cavalierism, and the Civil War was but 
the clashing of the irreconcilable elements struggling for the 
mastery of the Nation's Spirit The fortune of War had wav- 
ered, and it seemed now the Cavalier, now the Puritan, 
would go down in the struggle. 

As the two forces meet on the field of Gettysburg, each 
realizes that it is a crisis time, for a Southern victory will 
undoubtedly end the war. 

Each army is carried away with the certainty of victory 
and as the battle opens, each rushes into it without the 
slightest doubt of winning. No fairer scene could beconceived 



than that Pennsylvania country on that glorious sum- 
mer morning. Away to the west is the wavering blue line 
of the range of the South Mountain. Across the fields of 
ripened grain the summer breeze sends wave after wave of 
rippling gold. Here there are rolling fields of grass and, as 
ifto soften down the riotous profusion of color appears 
patches of woodland, and over all is a softening mist through 
which the sun sends fiery sparkles, and blazes the sky from 
rim to rim. with the thrilling glory of the rainbow. For 
whom will the battle fulfill the promise held in the rainbow? 

Such was the first morning of Gettysburg, yet,aftertwo 
days of fighting the shadows of night fall with the issue un- 
decided. Neither side has failed, neither has succeeded, yet 
I lie cold, pale moon has never risen upon a ghastlier scene. 

Thousands have fought nobly and well, and now, with 
I heir faces upturned to the pitying stars, they lie down to 
lake their last deep sleep and rest. The breeze in its dirge 
lor the countless dead shrinks frightened from the blood- 
stained grain, the fields of green are now drenched in blood, 
mid across the plain in the chill night breeze there passes a 
terrible whisper, "Death." Across the sky just the day be- 
fore, the rainbow stretches in its arch of hope. Tonight on 
Hie earth has the hand of War writ ten thousand names in 
Ms letters of blood. 

And yet in the weird hours of the night, Robert Lee with 
his principal officers, determines to renew the attack next 
Hay. Verily, the fighting will of the Southerner is worthy 
"I his Cavalier fathers. Let the puritan look well to his de- 

The key of the whole situation is Cemetery Hill, which is 
Beld by the Federal center. If, by a determined rush, this 
bmnt can be wrested, the Federal line will be pierced, and 
1 i this high commanding point Gen. Meade's guns can be 



turned upon each wing of his own army stretched below and 
his defeat thus become inevitable. 

For this ardous undertaking the fresh troops of Pickett's 
Virginians are selected with Heth's N. C. division, under Gen. 
Pettigrew, to serve as protection to Pickett's left, and a bri- 
gade of Hill's, under Gen. Wilcox, to cover his right. 

About an hour past noon, the Confederate forces posted on 
Seminary Ridge, open tip a thundering artillery fire. Gen. 
Hancock said: " This artillery fire was the most terrific can- 
nonade I ever witnessed and the most prolonged. It was a 
most terrific and appalling cannonade, one possibly never 
paralleled in the world's history of war." 

For tvvo hours the frightful hurly burly continues, the 
thunder of the 225th artillery guns doubled and trebled in 
echoes thrown back from the two ridges in roar after roar 
of thunder. 

By this time the charging column has been drawn up on 
the west side of Seminary Ridge, opposite the Federal force 
behind the strong breastworks on the more elevated Ceme- 
tery Hill. Only a mile stretches between the opposing ridges 
and, as those 12,000 men begin their march across this open 
field, a great, instructive silence falls upon the two watching 
armies. In its ominous forward march, the advancing col- 
umn is an incarnation of human will and determination. 

In consternation the enemy watches the division marching 
toward their almost impregnable position, with battle flags 
flying, bayonets flashing in the sunlight, and an air of quiet 
determination that displays no agitation, no hurry, no pos- 
sible thought of being checked. When they have reached the 
midway point, a terrific fire is poured down upon them, but, 
with the same air of quiet determination, the men close up 
the gaping ranks and march on in perfect order. Such sol- 
diership under such galling fire, has rarely been displayed, 



as, without even a momentary confusion, without display- 
ing any desire to return the fire, in the same threatening si- 
lence, the}' march on toward the slope. When, within a few 
hundred yards of the hill, they are met by a sudden rapid 
common fire and as shot and shell from nearly 50 artillery 
pieces sweep the line, the right is thrown into some disorder. 

At once, however, the confusion disappears and these won- 
derful, calm, determined men again close up and march on 
in silence. 

At last they have gained the foot of the hill. The crisis 
moment is reached. As the enemy's breastworks frown down 
upon them from the slope, the common time step has chang- 
ed to quick time, then to double quick, and now, with one 
wild rush, they charge up the slope toward the breastworks. 

A perfect storm of shot and shell now bursts upon them, 
and in their faces hell seems to be pouring all its powers of 
death. Pettigrew 's line gives way in confusion, the other 
supports have not kept up, so Pickett's division stands alone 
in the wild tempest beating upon them. 

From the Confederate line a heavy volley now bursts forth 
in answer to the Federal fire, and then, with wild cheers, they 
make a dash at the very breastworks. In spite of the gall- 
ing fire poured upon them they reach, storm and capture 
them at the point of the bayonet. The dash has brought 
such frightful loss that the Virginians are now merely a 
handful. The enemy has partially retreated, but only to 
take up position behind a stronger line ofbreastworks, about 
60 yards off. Behind these breastworks the Federal reserve 
force is drawn up four deep in line bristling with bayonets 
and glaring with the mouths of cannon. Not once, how- 
ever, do the Virginians falter; not once does that glorious 
determination waver. Across the short space they dash 



again, but only to be met by a fire, not only blazing full in 
their faces, but also pouring furiously on each flank. 

Headlong they rush with a ringing cheer, 

Though the jaws of death gape wide; 
On, on they dash toward the mouth of hell, 

In their scornful Southern pride. 

But the wild, grand charge the Virginians made, 

Was the last convulsive throe 
Of the bloody fray, for the ranks sink down, 

Like the leaves when the north winds blow. 

Till East is West and West is East, 

The banner they bore is furled; 
But the Southern cheer of LhaL glorious charge 

Has gone ringing around the world. 

The last great hope of the battle field, 

The daring charge was vain ; 
And the sun now shines to blood red hues, 

As it sinks, sinks o'er the last hope slain. 

Yet the years have proved that the first da3''s sign, 

The rain bow stretched above, 
Held for us the promise of larger life, 
! And the broader faith of love. 

For neither the cavalier has won, 

Nor the Puritan creed so strong; 
But from the mingled blood and heart and brain, 

Was the new America born. 



H Comparison of Hmerican Slavery wttb t bat, of 
(Breece ano 1Rome. 


Slavery originated in the power of the strong over the 
weak. Man, in the infancy of society, uses his physical 
power according to his own pleasure. In thecaseof his wife 
and children, natural affection restrain him in a great meas- 
ure. But there was another class of dependents toward 
whom his conduct was not restrained — his slaves. In every 
age and country, until times comparatively recent, personal 
servitude, appears to have been the lot of a large, perhaps of 
the greater, portion of mankind. An account of the various 
forms of slavery in different nations would be highly inter- 
esting, but would far exceed our limits. The Romans, in 
their primitive settlements, were accustomed to the notion 
of slavery, incurred not only by captivity but also by crimes, 
by debt and especially by loss in gaming. In case of famine, 
and they were not infrequent, many persons were often com- 
pelled to exchange their liberty for bread, and oftentimes 
these slaves were far better educated than the master and 
superior to him in many ways, and while there was often 
friendship between them, the bitterness of the condition was 
keenly felt. This class of slaves was always proud, and 
when he followed his captor, captive in reality, yet before the 
world, the law and custom was a mere chattel, how fierce 
must have been his hunger and thirst for freedom. So differ- 
ent from American slaves ! For in the earliest records of the 
human race, in the monuments of Eg3 r pt and Syria, the negro 
is depicted as a slave bearing burdens; after tens of 



centuries he is still a menial. Four thousand years have not 
served to whiten the pigments of the frame nor develop to a 
great extent the forces oi his intellect. The legal condition 
of the Roman slaves was extremeh' abject. They were con- 
sidered as chattels on a par with cattle. No protection was 
afforded his limbs, or his life, against the avarice, or rage of 
a master. Nay, worse; the female had no defence for her 
virtue and her honor. Instances have occurred where the 
young female convert to Christianity was punished by being- 
exposed to public and legalized insults ; the most odious to 
female purity. A remnant of the abuse forms the plot of 
Shakespeare's play, "Pericles." No marriage could take 
place among slaves; they had no property; they 
could make no valid compact; they could hardly 
give testimony except in the rack. The ties of affection and 
blood were disregarded. In the eye of the land a slave was 
nobody. One of the cruelist and most unjust laws with the 
Romans was this. If a master was killed, all the slaves un- 
der the same roof, or near enough to hear his cry, were put 
to death. This unlimited power of the master over his 
slaves was not abolished until the time of the Antoninesin 
the second century. In America the slaves were considered 
as property and not allowed legal rights, but in very few 
instances do we ever find that a master made such use of his 
power. This fact is shown by the love that existed between 
master and slave. 

The manner in which the laborers on a Roman plantation 
were treated resembled our modern state prison discipline. 
They were sent out by day to labor in chains and at night 
were locked up in prison cells. The refractory were confined 
in subterranean dungeons. The sick among these laborers 
were often exposed and left to die. What a contrast between 
this and the way the slaves on our Southern plantations 



were treated. They were required to labor but not cumber- 
ed with chains and, after a hard day's work, they repaired 
to comfortable quarters where plenty of nourishing food 
awaited them. While those who were sick were tenderlj* 
cared for and oftentimes administered to by the hand of the 
mistress herself. 

The Roman methods of enforcing industry were vervmuch 
like the American. The hand, the lash, the rod were the 
readiest instruments. Domestic slaves, for the slighest act 
of disobedience, were sent to various workshops established 
on purpose to tame the unmanageable. Here, a fork, some- 
thing like a yoke, was placed around the neck, then they 
were chained and placed in stocks. Every expedient that 
human cruelty could devise was employed to insure the in- 
dustry and docility of the wretched slave. The ladies of fash- 
ion all had their maids, and how dreadfully these tire- 
women suffered for every unbecoming curl. Such treatment 
as this would often cause the Roman slave to run away, as 
did our American slave, but how unlike the punishment in 
each case. In America, if a runaway was re-taken, he was 
punished severely with the lash, but a Roman was branded, 
crucified, or punished by the loss of a limb. Sometimes they 
were compelled to fight a beast or sold for a gladiator. 

If we examine the avocations of the Roman slaves, we 
shall find that, owing to their intellectual superiority, they 
differ materially from those of America. The slaves of Rome 
occupied every conceivable station, from superintending and 
enjoying the rich man's villa, to the lowest office of menial la- 
bor. Nor was it unusal to teach slaves the art. Yirgilmade 
one of his a poet, and Horace, himself, was the son of an 
emancipated slave. 




But enough ofslaves in Rome. Itis wellknown that all her 
industry and prosperity were crushed and cursed by slavery. 
"Rome has perished — write the word 
In the blood that she has spilt ; 
Perished, hopeless and abhorred, 
Deep in ruin as in guilt." 

So we will not dwell upon the results arising, but leave 
Rome alone and take a glimpse into life among the Greek 

Slavery originated in Greece, as in Rome, from captives of 
war. It was unknown during the Pelasgian epoch, but in 
the heroic age it became an object of luxur}' but not of social 
or economical necessity. Most of the wars and expeditions 
during this age were made for the purpose of kidnapping 
men and women to sell in exchange with the Phoenicians for 
various luxuries. Such was the origin of slavery at the time 
when history throws its first rays on the Grecian world. 
Quite different is its origin in America. The evil of slavery, 
if I may term it as such, was entailed on the United States 
by the measures of the mother country during the period of 
colonial dependence. 

The colonies made repeated efforts to prevent the importa- 
tion of slaves into this country, but could not obtain the 
consent of the English government. And so they were 
brought to us not captives of war nor intelligent beings, but 
almost savages and, according to Booker Washington, they 
are the only race that were invited to a country, and it 
would be rude for them to leave. It is hard for us, with our 
conceptions, to enter into the conditions and treatment of 
slaves in ancient Greece. They were considered there, as in 
Rome, mere chattels. The most humane philosophers did 
not make the least objection to slavery, though they some- 
times objected to Greeks being slaves, thinking that Barba- 



rians only that is all who were not Greeks should be so de- 
graded. Aristotle, one of the most powerful minds of anti- 
quity, said : "To the Greeks belong dominion over the Bar- 
barians, because the former have theunderstandingrequisite 
to rule, the latter the body only to obey." He called the 
slave a living instrument, as the instrument is an inanimate 
slave. The serfs, slaves attached to the land, could not be 
sold out of the country. They had a hard, bitter life. Their 
hatred of their tyrannical masters, showing itself in numer- 
ous insurrections. The condition of the Helots was in man} 7 
respects similar to that of the serfs. The} T could not be sold 
beyond the borders of the State. The3 r lived in villages 
which were once their own property. Their fate was alto- 
gether within the law, whereas other domestic slaves in 
Greece, like those in America, depended upon the arbitrary 
will of an individual. They served in the army and fought 
great battles. The Americans could not entrust their slaves 
with arms and drill them in military companies. As a race 
they were too cowardly and wholly incapable of such confi- 

In Athens slaves were treated with considerable mildness, 
though they were always liable to torture in case their evi- 
dence was required. It was common for the accused to offer 
his slaves' evidence if he was suspected of concealing any 
facts, which they knew, and these slaves were never believed 
without torture. Again, the respectable and pious Nicias, 
living in his comfortable home in Athens, let slaves out by 
thousands to be worked in the Lavinian silver mines, where 
the poisonous smoke and the hardships were such that half 
the price of the slaves was paid yearly by the contractor who 
hired them — in other words, if he lived three years Nicias re- 
ceived one and a half times the value of his slave. A South 
ern planter and master of similar character, guilty of such 




inhuman conduct, would not have been considered very re- 
spectable and by no means pious. But when we compare 
the relations existing between master and slave in America, 
and that same relation as it existed in all other ages and in 
all other countries, especially Greece and Rome, there is sim- 
ply no comparison. There was a tenderness about the tie 
existing between the master and his servant in the old slavery 
days that has never existed anywhere in the world before. 
It was close akin to that between a guardian and his ward. 
It produced the highest type and purest flower of civilization 
the world has ever seen, both in the black and white races. 
The Southern soldier and statesman has never had a supe- 
rior, perhaps not an equal, and this civilization that they 
imparted to the African is not possessed by any other por- 
tion of that race the world over. The proof of this tender 
tie is seen in the events of the civil war. No higher proof of 
it can be offered than the loyalty and devotion with which 
the negroes cared for the families left at home without a pro- 
tector during that awful struggle. They watched over them 
by day and guarded them by night, and the almost dog-like 
docility with which they followed their masters to the tented 
field, and oftentimes bore their mangled and bleeding bodies 
from the battle ground, is both touching and beautiful. 
Nothing like it was ever seen before, and its like will not be 
seen again, for it has been withered and blasted by the storm 
of civil war. 

Historv can show no instances of such prolonged and cold- 
blooded cruelty as is presented in the nefarious slave trade 
of Greece and Rome, and yet in no country did it reap such 
rich fruits as in Greece. It cannot be denied that it had much 
to do with the development of Greek genius by giving it ab- 
solute leisure to live above sordid cares. Had we had such a 



climate as Greece, such health as the Greeks, we, too, might 
have been more intellectual and literary by reason of slavery, 
whereas, I believe our energies lagged, and many of ouryoung 
people lived do-less-lives. 

Slaverv in America, whatever its demerits, was not in its 
time the unmitigated evil it is fancied to have been. Noth- 
ing in Grecian or Roman slavery is like it, and it 
stands out in the dark pages of the history of slavery the 
one bright unique spot, and it is the everlasting glory of the 
Southern master that he took a savage from the jungle and 
made a civilized man out of him. It served another great 
purpose to the negro ; it compelled him to labor and often- 
times learn a trade, such as blacksmithing, shoemaking, etc. 
Dr. G. Stanley Hall, the famous educator, considers the 
period of American slavery as one of the great periods in the 
history of motor education. 

Labor, even tho' it be unwilling, is a thousand times better 
than indolence. The material world does much for the mind 
by its beauty and order; but it does more for our minds by 
the pains it inflicts. The time of slavery in America has 
passed and no power could compel the South to haveit back. 
But to the negro it was salvation, while to the Greeks and 
Romans it was misery and oftentimes death. It found the 
negro uncivilized, and in two hundred years gave seven mil- 
lions of his race a civilization— the only civilization it has had 
since the dawn of historv. 

42 DIXIE. 

©ne ZlDas 3>a$. 


May day in my childhood seems to have been always 
bright and warm. 

The roses, syringa and crab apple blossoms never failed to 
bloom in time for onr festivals. We would make wreaths 
and garlands of them with which to deck our white swiss 
dresses, etc., on those gala days, for our schools always had 
what we called "May parties." 

A chosen queen wascrowned,and she, with all her subjects 
and the seasons, the graces, the nymphs, the maids, the 
fairies, and even some of the goddesses from Olympia, would 
hold undisputed sway for the time, and "all went merry as 
a marriage bell." But, one May day stands out in memory 
in sharp contrast with these-that of 1865-the close of the 
terrible Civil war! 

On this day the several schools, therefore all the young 
people of town, went picnicing out in the country to differ- 
ent attractive points. I, with a girl friend, deserted our own 
school and companions for that day and were the guests of 
another school, by special invitation. I remember how we 
enjoyed the merry ride out into the country. How pure was 
the air, how fragrant the flowers, how entrancing was all 
nature, especially to young unclouded hearts. We were as 
free and happy as the birds on the wing until about noon, 
whilst we were eagerly enjoying our picnic dinner, a runner 
from town brought the startling news, "the Yankees are 
coming!"— they were even then near the town. Consterna- 
tion reigned supreme! With what haste, anxiety, and ex- 
citement we scattered. There was no order or discipline in 



leaving. I can't remember when we were put out or how it 
was, but I know my friend and I were alone on our way 
home, almost running every step, when down near our old 
depot we were all at once in the midst of a company of cav- 
alry riding rapidly, and with mean triumph, into our town. 
We cowered together, in terror, on one side of the road, ex- 
pecting to be molested in some way. Our thoughts went to 
our only valuables, our breast pins and ear rings, thinking 
we would at least be robbed, but to our surprise and 
joy they passed on and never noticed us; and we gazed 
after the great company of Yankee soldiers, the first we had 
ever seen, with our fears somewhat .allayed. Wereached our 
homes, which were adjoining lots, in safety, and were met 
with open arms by our dear ones. I found my brother just 
starting out to hunt me, as I was the only one missing from 
the family circle. My sister and her friend and guest, a fair 
young lady, had but just arrived from another picnic excur- 
sion, and a young gallant, who had escorted them, hid be- 
hind our neighbor's fire screen for some time. He did not 
want to be captured, except by Cupid, and here let me say: 
He afterwards married the fair lady and they are now promi- 
nent and wealthy citizens of Charleston. I found, on reach- 
ing home, our beautiful carriage horses being ridden off by 
horrid, blue coated thieves, and some of the same were in 
our house demanding of my mother the fire arms. They 
eagerly took possession of several small silver mounted pis- 
tols my father had purchased with a view to teaching each 
girl how to use them, for defense, if need be. The guns, he 
and my brother used for hunting, they took and smashed 
against the chimney outside the house. The wines, etc., in 
the closet, they poured out on the ground, but, by that time, 
the door bell rang and an officer appeared, saying, he would 
send us a guard at once, which he did, and we were in a 



measure relieved. They again showed some humanity, when 
my one-armed brother was ordered to march before them to 
town to the Court House, and his young bride-wife followed 
close after him, refusing to go back, when the leader had 
compassion and said : "Madame, if you will only return, I 
promise you that your husband shall come back to you un- 
hurt." Not till then would she be separated from him— and 
the man kept his word. 

My father, on the approach of the enemy, had left home 
with some other leading men to hide in some safe place till 
danger was past, for news had come that all who had led in 
the Secession movement would be hung or killed in some 
way. Imagine our constant anxiety about him for fear he 
would be found. • r 

Every night for about a week we watched all night, with 
anxious tortured hearts, for each day news would come to 
us through our servants and others that our house would be 
burned down that night, sure. We would feel that each day 
would be our last in our home. We wore two suits of 
clothes and put other apparel in pillow cases and 
gave them to the negroes to keep in their cabins, and sent 
some to some poorer houses in the neighborhood to keep for 
us. Our old family servants proved faithful and loyal every 
time. My mother handed out all valuables to different ser- 
vants to secrete when the Yankees werecoming, and there was 
no time to think— shejust trusted them. Our gardener went off 
to a marshy place, about a mile distant, and buried our sil- 
ver, leaving some plated ware for use. Other valuables were 
hidden in the ash hopper and other obscure places. 

We had only one negro, a girl, off the plantation, about 17 
years old, to desert. She went away with the raiders, leav- 
ing her old parents very much distressed. 



Many of our people fared worse than we, by far — they 
having no guard to check the thieving. Some were visited 
by brutes, who, to make them deliver up their jewels, would 
go so far as to threaten, and even attempt, to hang them. 
One dear old Charleston lad}', in one house, and agentleman, 
in another, afterwards carried a purple ring around their 
throats for a time, so roughly had the}' been thus treated. 
In one house, just out of town, I had some friends who suf- 
fered. The marauders, after taking their valuables, even 
took their sugar, coffee, etc., and, stripping the pillow cases 
off the bed, would fill them. Brown sugar and things the\- 
did not want they stirred into the ashes in the fire-place. 
They even rifled the trunks of the dead sons who had died in 
Confederate service, and rung the heart of the dear old 
mother by wearing off their sacred uniforms. And at last 
they kindled a fire in the center of a room and put on it a 
box of the old lady's caps, among other things, and ordered 
a negro man, one of their faithful servants, to keep it burning, 
and thus destroy the building. The servant said nothing, 
but would quietl}- trample the starting flames under foot 
till he had put them out entirely. This is only one out of 
hundreds of like and even worse experiences. 

The Confederate treastiry, as you all know, was here then 
in the building which had been the "Johnson Female Univer- 
sity," a famous school for women, and which we have re- 
cently known as the P. M. I., for men. With hellish delight, 
they thi-ew to the four winds of heaven, the plate and die 
that made our Confederate money, and great sheets of bills, 
yet unstamped, and parchment on which money was stamped, 
were scattered and strewn all up and down the old hill. Our 
servants would pick up and bring in to us great rolls of this 
spotless paper, so that we made it into fine note paper and 
envelopes, and felt rich in a sense, as the war time stationery 



had been coarse and brown and mean, or made out of any 
thing we could find that would answer the purpose. The 
dry goods stores were also rifled, the goods thrown into 
the streets, and the astonished negroes invited to come and 
help themselves. So the y, in a measure, enriched themselves 
by the spoils of war. 

There was a wine cellar owned by an Englishman, Gur- 
dion, who was a connoisseur, and his fine wines were taken 
and all they did not want to use they poured out in the 
street. It seemed then a devilish trick, but I learned after- 
wards there was wisdom and mercy in it, as the men would 
have become drunk and beastly indeed in our midst. The 
war being then practically over they had no right Lo be on 
these raids. They were ostensibly hunting Jefferson Davis, 
but in reality they were pillaging and committing every fiend- 
ish depredation they could m our poor, dear defeated South- 
land, and brutally enjoying their unequal victory over us. 

Our young men had all been secured promptly and held as 
prisoners in our Court House for some time. Their leaders 
were wise in this and in first getting up all our fire arms, or 
they might have met with the resistance they deserved, 
altho' the war was over and we in their power. Ere they 
secured our men there was a group of them standing on our 
square that excited their suspicion, so they fired into them 
and killed one of our men, a Charleston youth, who was 
loved and esteemed and whose people, with crowds of others, 
had come to us for refuge. When our "city by the sea" was 
fired on, and became a seat of war, her women and children, 
and all who could not fight and were able to get away fled, 
and our up-country towns were filled with them. We opened 
our hearts and homes to them, and they lived here till the 
war was over, and some, longer. We learned to know and 
appreciate each other as we never would have done 



otherwise. Our's was a common cause, acommonsorrowand 
a common loss. Friendships and ties were formed that will 
last through all time, and thus this was one of the blessings 
in disguise, brought to us even by that awful war. 

Stonewall Jackson— TEbe flDan of power. 


[historian of the dixie chapter, u. d. c] 

Should the lives of all men be called before the Judgment 
Bar of the Ages, there would stand out in bold relief as the 
three great moulding forces in life, the power that man calls 
circumstance, the power he names heredity, and the power 
that man calls will. Battling for the possession of man, 
stand heredity and environment, often hurling their united 
forces against the power of man's own distinct will. 

When man stands out in the full glory of youth and 
strength to carve out his life, a thousand voices are calling 
to him from the thoughts and deeds of his fathers, who 
would still find life in his life. A thousand subtle influences 
are springing up from the sphere in which he lives, which 
would fain grow into the character that is to be formed. 

Each is trying to gain control over ever\ 7 thought and 
deed, but 'tis a weak inglorious soul that allows its charac- 
ter and life to be moulded by these two forces. To live the 
life dictated by heredity or environment, is not to live, but is 
a mere passive fulfillment of the natural laws of life. 

To live, or not to live, is a question for man's own will, 
and if his life is to stand out in the godliness of self-reliant 
strength, that divinely given human will must grasp the in- 
herited tendencies and the outer circumstances of life with 



the grip of a hand of iron, and mould them to a strong true 
tool, with which to carve out clear lines in life. 

Man was made to master, and if we search the pages of 
life, no stronger example of human will, can be found than 
Stonewall Jackson as the master of all fate. He himself said, 
that a man could accomplish whatsoever he willed and if we 
analize his life, we find that this was his animating rule of 
action. Emerson says, that a character is like an acrostic: 
"Read it forward, backward or across and it always 
spells the same." 

If we spell out the character of Jackson, we find ever this 
one word, Power, or the will that could master fate. If we 
search for the qualities of the will that made the life of Jack- 
son shine out in the light of a unique and wonderful strength, 
we find standing out in strong relief that first essential of 
greatness— self-reliance. Let a man know his own worth, 
and believe ardently in it and he can put the world under 
his feet. It is a glorious spectacle to see a man stand out in 
the majesty of self-reliant strength alone, yet towering far 
above the men, who fain would mock him, and gradually 
drawing the world to him with an irresistable power, and 
binding it to himself with the iron that at first was only his 
own unwavering self-trust. When Stonewall Jackson was 
first appointed Colonel of volunteers, men were asking every- 
where, "Who is T. J. Jackson?" And when they saw the 
commonplace looking Colonel, their wondering doubts were 
deepened to open disbelief in the ability of this so-called vic- 
tim of good luck. But tingling in the blood of Jackson was 
an unconquerable self-reliance, and burning in his heart were 
the words: "A man can accomplish whatsoever he wills." 
And years and ages are thundering back who T. J. Jackson 



When a man of strength finds all the world with its ready 
scorn for him he may scorn the scorner, yet every nerve tin- 
gles to prove his worth, and self-reliance inevitably inspires a 
constant spirit of combatism. As struggle is the secret of 
universal life, and life has been defined as a search after power 
we may say that combatism is one of the first essentials 
in those who would grasp and hold the world. Every line 
ofjackson's face expresses this spirit of combatism which 
loved fighting for the pure exultation of struggle; which 
gloried in the clash of forces, the matching ofpower to pow- 
er. The combatism which in the whole round of his life ex- 
pressed itself in the unswerving determination to adjust his 
own will to every obstacle and crush it, would naturally find, 
a glorious culmination on the scene of a battlefield, and we 
have no finer illustration of this than Cooke's picture of him at 
thebattle of Cedar Run, when one portion of the field seemed 
inevitably lost. 

"At the moment of disaster and impending ruin, Jackson 
appeared amid clouds of smoke and his voice was heard ris- 
ing above the uproar and the thunder of theguns. The man 
ordinarily so cool, silent and deliberate was now mastered 
by the genius of battle. In feature, voice and bearing, burn- 
ed the resolve to conquer or die. Galloping to the front 
amid the heavy fire directed upon his disordered lines, now 
rapidly giving away — with his eyes flashing, his face flushed, 
his voice rising and ringing like a clarion on every ear, he 
rallied the confused troops and brought them into line. At 
the same moment the old Stonewall Brigade and Branch's 
Brigade advanced at doube quick and shouting, 'Stonewall 
Jackson! Stonewall Jackson!' The men poured a galling fire 
into the Federal lines. The presence of Jackson leading them 
in person seemed to produce an indescribable influence on 
the troops, and as he rode to and fro amid the smoke, en- 





couraging the men, they greeted him with cheer after cheer. 
This was one of the few occasions when he is reported to 
have been mastered by excitement. He had forgotten, ap- 
parently, that he commanded the whole field, and imagined 
himself a simple colonel leading his regiment. Everywhere 
in the thickest of the fire his form was seen and his voice 
heard, and his exertions to rally the men were crowned with 
glorious success. 

The Federal advance was checked. The repulsed troops 
re-formed and led once more into action, and with Jackson in 
front, the troops swept forward and re-established their 
lines upon the ground from which they had been driven. 

Those who saw Jackson when he thus galloped to the 
front and thus rallied his men in the very Jaws of destruc- 
tion declare that he resembled the very god of battle, the 
genius of battle incarnate." 

We must not associate the idea of blind fury with this 
combatism of Jackson's, and to clear our minds of such a 
possibility we pass to his generalship, the third great attri- 
bute of the military genius. The great element in his general- 
ship was his marvelous power of invariably doing the 
thing least expected. 

After studying those world-famous flank movements, we 
may safely say that when the enemy felt safest an attack 
from Jackson was surest. To grasp a situation, elude all 
calculation, surprise, strike, crush, and get away without 
ev.en giving them a chance to think of catching him, was 
what Stonewall Jackson stood for in the eyes of the Federal 
army. Eminently fitted to be the master of men, he could 
iuspire his soldiers to almost superhuman effort on those 
great marches, and the amazing distances he could cover was 
once grasped by a waggish private in a good joke. He ask- 
ed, "Why is Old Jack a better general than Moses?" And 

when none of his fellow soldiers could answer, he answered, 
amid a burst of laughter, "Because it took Moses forty 
years to get the Jews out of the wilderness, and if Old Jack 
had been there, he would have double quicked them through 
in three days." 

To offset what sometimes seemed a reckless daring, the 
results always proved a wonderful accuracy in his calcula- 
tions; to strengthen his policy of bold aggressiveness there 
was an amazing rapidity of action, a certainty of foresight, 
and tenacity of purpose that made success inevitable. 

The breath of his genius in military affairs made him grasp 
immense issues and carry out large movements, and the in- 
tensity with which he planned made his blows quick, hard 
and decisive. ! j. 

With his steady nerve, clear foresight, rapidity of mOve- 
ent, and breath of vision, nothing seemed impossible' to 
Stonewall Jackson, and the verdict of military critics has 
been that the brain which could plan and carry out the cam- 
paign of the valley would have been equal to any circum- 
stance. ,; 

With the godliness of his self-reliance falling from him like 
a robe of power, Sitone wall Jackson stands out in the lives 
of men as the embodiment of the self-conscious power of 
will. With the intensity of his combatism crushing all op- 
position and glorying in\the mastery df forces, he became a 
living, thrilling example of the power of this will in action. 
With the broad development of his generalship and the ever- 
lasting glory of his successes, he towers in eternal inspiration 
above the world as a proof that those possibilities in which 
the self-reliant will trusts, and for which the spirit of com- 
batism fights, may, in the development of the unfolding 
years be transformed into realities. 



But in the last analysis of Character all these three forces 
resolve themselves into mere side- lights of that last won- 
drous force that made the will of Jackson radiate with power. 
We may climb the heights with patient will and seek to 
find the secret springs of every thought and deed. Quality 
after quality of power may be discovered and veil after veil 
be lifted to show some new found force in his life. But with- 
in, around and over all like a glorious spirit of beauty and 
light was a thrilling presence, a soul's trust in God and a 
love for the Father of Man. He felt that the forces in his 
own single life were part of that Universal Life, and upon 
the heights of his grand pure soul he met God face to face. 

When all other things are told there still remains thc^ cen- 
tral light, of which his other powers were but the shining 


God was to him a personal power in which he lived and 
moved and had his being. Glowing in his heart was the 
wondrous Presence inspiring every thought and deed and 
thrilling every plan and hope with the life of a larger hope. And 
so, when we "reach the great white height of Stonewall Jack- 
son's purest self, we find all wrapped in the loveliness of trust 
in God and falling over all in its glory and warmth, the sun- 
shine from the Central Sun, into whose image his soul had 
been transformed. 

For the will may plan and fight and gain, 
But only when fired by the larger will, 

Can true hopes be born, true deeds be done, 
And true life live on till Eternity. 



Monument to Confederate Dead, erected at Anderson, S. C, 1901, by the Ladies' 
Memorial Association, Miss Lenora Hubbard, President. 



XTbe Entombment of Jefferson Davis. 

[by "kit, courtland."] 

It flashed across a listening world 

A chieftain's soul had flown ; 
A warrior with a banner furled, 

A king without a throne. 

They laid him by a river's side, 
Where the soft tropic breeze, 

Came floating down the Gulf's blue tide. 
With shells from Southern seas. 

But a noble city once oppressed, 
Had mightier, stronger claims, 

'T was Richmond yearned to give him rest, 
Fair Richmond on the James. 

And so they brought him still and slow, 
O'er the hills and storied mounds, 

To where Virginia's rivers flow, 
By his old battle grounds. 

Beside that tomb when day has flown, 
On guard like swarthy Huns, 

Two phantom sentries all alone, 
Rest on their grounded guns. 

They fought till every hope was gone, 

Then died beneath the |)lue, 
Where Appomattox still makes moan, 

The Western Waterloo. 
And now they guard while phantom drums, 

Roll down the midnight hours, 
And up from purple shadows comes, 

The South with all her flowers. 

Our chieftain dwells among the blest, 
Par from all earthly claims, 

And the phantom sentries guard his rest, 
At Richmond on the James. 

DIXIE. 55 

Southern Women Before, 2)urinQ anD Bfter tbe War. 


The life of Southern women of antebellum daj's; the sweet 
olden time, has been so idealized in song and story that it is 
hard to separate the real from the purely imaginary. To 
look at it from amodern standpoint, we must thrust aside 
the glittering veil thus thrown over the past and take a 
practical, common sense view of the real situation. 

The Southern heroine in literature, both of the past and 
present, is 1 ' too often portrayed as a weak, delicate creature, 
of fragile form, whose chief occupation in life seems to be to 
sit on the vera'ndah in a rocking chair, or to recline on a lounge 
pillowed with innumerable cushions. She rarely ever does 
anything except read a novel or busy her "fairy fingers," 
with dainty embroidery, while numerous servants come at 
her beck and call. That is one portrait of the Southern maidt 
en before any of the responsibilities of life fell upon' her 
shoulders. But what about the Southern matron? In the 
language of one of Carolina's daughters: "From early morn 
till morn again the most important and delicate concerns of 
the plantation were her charge and care. She was mistress, 
manager, doctor, nurse, counsellor, seamstress, '■■ teacher, 
housekeeper, all at once." Mrs. T. J. Latham, the gifted 
President of the Tennessee Division, U. D. C, with delicate 
touch, thus paints the portrait of the woman of the early 
Southi in a recent number of "The Confederate Veteran :" 
"Nowhere existed' a purer and loftier type of refined and cul- 
tured womanhood than in the early South, and the hospi- 
tality; and social intercourse of our grandmothers and their 
friends were highly cultured and refined. Their modesty was 





womanly and native. They were unaccustomed to the gaze 
of the world and shrank from publicity. Men were the 
bread-winners, women the home-keepers. The graces m 
which the Southern women excelled and which I would fain 
paint on my canvas, were neatness, grace, beauty of person, 
ease and freedom withoutboldness of manner, mind innately 
refined and cultivated, brilliant. in gay wit and repartee, 
with thought and character spotless and pure, a laudable 
pride of family, and an untiring devotion to home, friends, 
kindred and loved ones." _ 

But, like gold thrown into the crucible, the women ol the 
South had to pass through a fiery furnace to develop the 
best traits in their character. It is easy to be good and 
happy when there is nothing but sunshine and prosperity in 
one's'life, but when the dark days come and never a ray of 
light penetrates the future, then is the hour at hand 
that tries men's souls, ave, and women feel it more than the 
lords of creation. For man has the world to roam and to 
choose from, while in most instances woman's life is bounded 
by the four walls of home. 

For four long and bitter years were the courage, endur- 
ance and loyaltv of Southern women put to a terrible test. 
Right nobly did' they stand this test as these stronger quali- 
ties of mind and character were stirred into activity by trials 
hardships, adversities and poverty. Truly it is said, 
"Thought and action go hand in hand. Heart and brain in 
unison accomplish wonders." Another writer in "The Lost 
Cause" forcibly says, that "The patriotism of the Southern 
women was not the outcome of a mere sentiment, but a pure, 
steadv flame, which from the beginning of the war to the 
end, burned brightly upon the altars of sacrifice, which they 
setup over all the land." "The power behind the throne 
never ceased to be felt. Its spirit pervaded every breast ol 


the living barricades which opposed the invaders, nerved 
every arm to battle for the right and inspired valorous deeds 
which dazzled the world." In quiet homes our women toiled 
and spun, facing difficulties and dangers, such as women 
never confronted before, with their natural protectors far 
away on the bloody field of war. 

When the men of Dixie marched to the front they left a 
fearful responsibility resting on the shoulders of our South- 
ern women. This was to provide food and raiment for their 
families and all their dependant slaves, with no resources 
available except the preducts of the farm. Fortunately, the 
acreage of cotton was limited by law in order that large 
food supplies could be raised for the army, a tax of one- 
tenth of all provisions being levied for that purpose. In the 
latter part of the war an additional tax was levied to aid 
the widows of soldiers and such of their wives as were una- 
ble to support themselves. 

Therefore, the larder at home was supplied mainly from 
the farm, and if one of our ancient dames could step into our 
little pantries of today, six by eight feet, maybe, in size, she 
would think starvation surely was in sight! 

On the large plantations the buildings seemed like a small 
village. I recall several that had two dozen or more, beside 
the cabins for the slaves. In the yard were the big store 
room and little store room, the cellar built of brick with 
plastered walls of a kind of clay and used as a winter hot 
house for potatoes, turnips, etc. There was the kitchen 
separate from the dwelling, a dairy, a smoke house, the car- 
riage house, with harness room attached, an overseer's cot- 
tage, the poultry house, with three large apartments ; then 
there, were sheds covering the stacks of sweet potatoes and 
seed cane, and last but not least, a brick oven to do the 
family baking before stoves came into use. In the stock 



yard were the big barn and little barn, big stable and little 
stable, corn crib, pigeon pagoda, sheep house and tannery. 
At the gin house lot was the big ginnery with its lint room 
and seed room, the old fashioned screw cotton press drawn 
by horses, and a large ware room for cotton, while by the 
roadside sat the blacksmith shop, slaughter house and com- 
missary store for the plantation. Thus was the planter well 
fixed to take care of his slaves and his crops and to manu- 
facture the raw materials. His table was abundantly sup- 
plied. with hominy, meal, rice, pork, bacon, beef, mutton, 
poultry, fish, game and sugar and molasses made from the 
sugar cane. Some of the manufactures were in a crude form 
and are not extinct yet. I can remember as a childish 
amusement watching "Uncle" Sam or Holbert on rainy days 
"beat rice" for the family supply in a wooden mortar with a 
Wooden pestle in the old carriage house, while he told mar- 
velous tales of brer' rabbit and brer' fox, or how he cooked 
for dem pesky Yankees when he was a prisoner of war wid 
did massa. Then I was sometimes sent with the house girl 
to the "quarters" to carry meals from "de buckra table" to 
blind old aunt Dorcas, this being necessary to keep her 
grand-daughter from eating the food on the way and giving 
the poor creature only "the scraps." There another old ex- 
slave, aunt Maria, sat and spun with her little wheel, and 
horrified me with an account of how "de debble kep' throw- 
ing tater peelings down de chimney at me while I said my 
pra'rs— sho' as you's born, he did, honey!" 

To return to" my subject. On the farm the grain was 
threshed by throwing it on the barn floor and driving horses 
around to trample it, while a clumsy wooden machine 
pressed the juice out of the cane. Think of the work Of car- 
ing for all these numerous products -the troughs for salting 
the pork, the vessels for the lard, sugar and molasses for so 



many consumers— to prepare all these and attend to the 
smoking and curing of hundreds of hams, sides and shoulders 
of bacon. Did our mothers and grandmothers have little to 

What I might term the luxuries of the table were also pro- 
vided on the farm. When the coffee gave out and there was 
no chance to send to town, or the price was too high, there 
were the substitutes, rye and okra seed roasted, and sassa- 
fras tea. For desserts there was an abundance of fruits, 
nuts and berries in season, honey, apple cider, persimmon 
beer, grape and blackberry wine, while candy was made of 
molasses or sugar, with peanuts, walnuts, or bene-seeds. 

The medicine chest also took up a great deal of my lady's 
time. There was peach and apple brandy to manufacture, 
the castor oil bean to dose the children, (white and black,) 
elder and heart-leaf salves to make with refined lard, and she 
even made her perfumery of rose petals and bergamot water. 
When a case of sickness was on hand, which was of frequent 
occurrence, dogwood and cherry bark bitters were much in 
evidence, as well as teas made of mint, lavender, hoarhound, 
or sage. But the greatest task of all was the manufacture 
of clothing. The raw materials were at hand, cotton and 
wool, and these provided work in abundance. They had to 
be spun, woven and dyed by hand. Some irreverent pen has 
parodied the immortal poem, "Dying, Egypt, Dying," into 
the following lines called : 

"The Dyeing Confederate Lady." 

"I am dyeing! Hessie dyeing! 
Boils the kettle hot and fast, 
With the bark of the plum and walnut, 
Gathered in the days long past. 
Reach a hand. Oh, Hessie, help me! 
Cease thy giggle and look here; 

Notice this great pile of garments, 
Thou alone and I would wear. 



Though my torn and faded dresses, 

Lose their blackness ever more, 

And my well worn shawls and stockings, 

Tell how war has made me poor ; 

Though no glittering silks are with them, 

Prized by every woman still ; 

I must-mend and change and alter, 

Dye my Sunday garments still." 

What a task to cut out the garments after the weaving 
and dyiug were accomplished ! Most of this was done for 
the slaves bvthe mistress herself, though on the larger plan- 
tations ther'e was usually a tailor and seamstress among the 
servants. Headgear and footwear were also fearful prob- 
lems. Now we can visit the department stores and select a 
hat for five, ten, or twenty dollars without any trouble (ex- 
cept to get the money to pay for it) . Then the men had to 
be fitted up with cloth caps and woolen hats of domestic 
manufacture, while straw, corn shucks, bonnet squashes and 
palmetto were used for ladies' adornment. Everybody knew 
how to knit in those days, so that gloves and hostery were 
more easily supplied. m 

The lady who drove with her carriage and pair could not 
outdress the one who rode in a wagon in those days, so that 
there was not much rivalry or heart burnings on account of 
dress The belle who had had at least one silk dress each 
year, now more dyed cotton, and her beau, who erstwhile 
sported in broadcloth, had to don his home-made suit of 
jeans, homespun, or flannel. For ornament the ladies wore 
jewelry of fish scales or palmetto, and beads of the corn 

P Ah" well may the men of today plan monuments to the wo- 
men of the Confederacy. (As they are only planning ^ them, 
we eannot praise them until we see the fruit of their labors. 
Why out in Texas, the men had the monument-al cheek to 
send 'out a woman to visit the camps and chapters to solicit 



donations for a memorial institute to the honor of the 
mothers, wives and daughters of the Confederacy!) 

Well, I repeat, may the men bestir themselves to do honor 
to their memory. "In darkened homes, stricken hearts filled 
with an agony of desolation, struggled in vain to remember 
that they were the mothers and wives of heroes, but could not 
yet lift their eyes from the ghastly wounds and bloody 
graves of their loved ones." "Exalted far above mere senti- 
ment, holding no element of vanity or selfishness, idolatrous 
if you please, yet an idolatry which made any sacrifice pos- 
sible — no purer patriotism ever found lodgment in human 
breast." In the cities and in the way-side hospitals, devoted 
women soothed the wounded and tended the dying. No 
Confederate soldier was turned away who sought a meal or 
a night's lodging — officers and privates met with equal cour- 
tesy. But what of "the unreturning braves," those whose 
life blood was the fearful price of victory? How with fear 
and trembling was the army news received ! The dreadful 
list of the dead, wounded and missing was read with bated 
breath and trembling hearts. 

"Is there any news of the war ? she said. 

Only a list of the wounded and dead, 

Was the man's reply, 

Without listing his eye, 

To the face of the woman standing by. 

'Tis the very thing I want, she said, 

Read me a list of the wounded and dead. 

Hfe read her the list — it was a sad array, 

Of the wounded and killed in the fatal fray. 

In the very midst was a pause to tell, 

Of a gallant youth who fought so well, 

That his comrades asked, who is he, pray ? 

The only son of the widow Gray, 

Was the proud reply 

Of his captain nigh. 

What ails the woman standing near ? 

Her face has the ashen hue of fear ! 

62 DIXIE, 

Well, well, read on ; is he wounded ? quick ? 

God! but my heart is sorrow-sick, 

Is he wounded ? No ! he fell, they say ; 

Killed outright on that fatal day! 

But see! the woman has swooned away. 

Sadly she opened her eyes to the light, 
Slowly recalled the event of the fight; 
Faintly she murmured, 'killed outright.' 
It has cost the life of my only son, 
■■!j "V.: But the battle is fought and the victory won, 

■ . . , The will of the Lord, let it be done ! 

'>■ God pity the cheerless Widow Gray,; 

... .; ,\nd send from the ballot eternal day 

The light of His presence to. illumine her way." 

Two score years have passed since the fatal sixties. The 
world has made great strides in its progress, and the South 
is making strenuous efforts to keep up with the procession. 
But the virtues that adorned and ennobled her womanhood 
forty years ago are still the pride of her. people.. Wider 
fields and higher opportunities have been opened to our 
daughters than we ourselves enjoyed. In the world 
of art, music, the drama, and literature. The women 
of the South hold no mean position. The professional 
field has not been so eagerly invaded by our women, 
though there are a few doctors, lawyers, preachers and 
college presidents among us. The feminine editors, journal- 
ists, novelists, trained nurses and teachers are more common. 
Now that the problem of self-support is thrust upon women 
more and more, they have proved themselves equal to the 
emergency and have knocked and obtained entrance in 
heretofore unsought and forbidden occupations. I knew of 
a woman a few years ago who was the supervising architect 
in the building of a bridge across the Wateree River for the 
Seaboard Air Line Railroad. Her father, or husband, had 



died while in charge of the work, and she carried out his 
contract. As a rule, Southern women have not taken much 
stock in securing property and political rights, although 
more than two-thirds of the, States in the Union of the North 
and West have given women some form of suffrage. They 
vote in school and municipal elections principally ■» A few 
Southern States have fallen into line. Texas and Oklahoma 
give school suffrage; Arkansas and Missouri vote by petition 
on liquor license; Mississippi on the stock law, and Louisiana 
on allowing railroads to run through their parish. In New 
Orleans there is a distinguished woman lawyer (whose 
name I do not recall) who has secured further concessions to 
women in municipal and State elections. 

But I think we are not so proud of our lawyers, sculptors 
and dramatists as we are of such women as Augusta Evans 
Wilson, Miss Murfree (Craddock), Erminie Hallie Rives, 
Sarah Barnwell Elliot, Grace King, Frances Hodgson; Bur- 
nett and Mary Johnson. '■. ,; 

I cannot close this sketch without a brief glance at the 
part club life has done and is doing for our Southern women. 
We were a little slow in "catching on" to it, as we are to 
most innovations. Our grandmothers and mothers did not 
frequent clubs. So at first your modest, retiring woman 
was a little afraid that it savored of Woman's Rights. That 
it meant the unsexing of woman to some extinct, and worse 
still, that it would not please the men for their mothers, sis-, 
ters, wives and daughters to usurp the privileges they had 
enjoyed from time immemorial. Then the men were afraid 
that they would have to stay at home and attend to her 
duties while she visited the club, and dreaded the stigma 
which might confront them in being called "The New Wo- 
man's Husband/' 



In spite of fears, opposition and criticism, our Southern 
woman has become merged in the larger life of the club. 
There she finds a safe^and pleasant recreation from the wear 
and tear of domestic work and worry. Her social nature is 
fed, her intellect awakened from its lethargy, and generous 
rivalry results in a stimulated mind and heart. 

As I said before, man has the world to choose from, but 
woman's sphere is so environed that sometimes she sinks 
into a narrow rut and goes deeper and deeper, so that by and 
by she can scarcely peep over the edge to get a glimpse of 
what is going on around her. Narrowed in social life, re- 
stricted in all her intellectual and spiritual aspirations, 
starved in mind, heart and soul, life becomes a dry, dull, 
monotonous existence. So it behooves us to seek anything 
that will lift us higher and draw us up out of such a listless 
and deplorable state of being. 

Yes, we have a right to be proud of our Southern woman- 
hood in the past and present. We have a right to be proud 
of our club women, for right here in the Dixie Chapter of 
Anderson, limited as we are in numbers, we have artists, 
poets, dramatists, story writers, editors, educators, elo- 
cutionists, novelists, composers and musicians. 

Soutbern limar. Songs. 


Father Ryan tells us "A land without ruins is a land with- 
out memories— a land without memories is a land without 
Liberty." No land is so full of sweet and tender memories, 
as the South. It has history, too, of which every true child of 
the South may well be proud. Our beloved land though 
conquered, was never humiliated. 



In the strength of endurance, in the sufferings of her people 
for principle, in the courage of her soldiers, in the patriotism 
of her noble women, in the genius of her leaders, the South 
has never been equaled. With sincerity she can say: "Sweet 
are the uses of adversity." When the war closed the South 
was indeed a land of ruins. Homes of elegance and wealth 
were completely destroyed. Everywhere were to be found 
suffering, sorrow and want; with money gone, and business 
destroyed, history presents no more pathetic picture in the 
annals of the world. 

But Anglo Saxon to the core, the people were equal to anv 
emergency. And the women of the South took their places 
by the men of the South, and with spinning wheel and plow- 
share, together they made a stand against the wolf at the 
door. God had passed the rod across the land and smitten 
the people. But in His goodness, blessings came, too. His 
hand scattered seed that overgrew the waste plains until 
now the war paths, the battlefields, and the overrun have 
become the astonishment of the Nations. 

"And the graves of the dead, with the grass over-grown, 
May yet form the footstool of Liberty's Throne; 
And each single wreck in the war-path of might, 
Shall yet be a rock in the Temple of Right," 

Some one has said: "Let me write a nation's ballads, and 
I care not who may make its laws." A true poet is indeed 
one of the most precious gifts that can be bestowed upon 
any generation. Such were Hemw Timrod, Paul Hamilton 
Hayne, Father Ryan, and Sidney Lanier. They were the 
finest interpreters of the feelings and traditions of the splen- 
did heroism of a brave people, in all the sacred tenderness 
that clings about its memories. Perhaps the best known of 
these poets is Henry Timrod. 



The first edition of his poetry was little heeded in the shock 
of war, but his poems, "Carolina," "A Call to Arms," and 
"Cotton Boll," stirred the heart of the entire South. The 
patriotic fire, the devoted sacrifice, and splendid achieve- 
ment, that the war songs of these Southern poets celebrate, 
were not only the rushing tide ofearnest feeling then, but are 
now a part of the heritage of the State, and the entire South- 
land. As a people, though, we have neither honored our 
singers nor treausred their songs. Thomas Nelson Page says, 
"The harpers were present at the feast," but no one called 
for the song. Not only that— we have not sought to know 
of their songs. When the country awoke to the fact in 1861, 
that war really existed, armed men sprang up as if dragon's 
teeth had been sown, and with them came an army of singers. 
In the corners of newspapers, names unheard of before found 
a place. 

The land that produced the soldiers possessed hearts to 
admire and praise them. War songs sprang forth with every 
newfeat of courage, and with every new name that was add- 
ed to the list of heroes. Some of these were of the "Jonah's 
Gourd" type, destined to live— only for a day— but not all of 
them were poor, here and there gems were found. Nor do 
the southern songs appear at a disadvantage when placed 
side by side with the efforts of the best known poets of the 
North— as has been done by George Cary Eggleston in 
"American War Ballads and Lyrics." Some of our own war 
ballads have been beautifully set to music. Colridge says: 
"Music is that which leads us to the edge of the infinite and 
allows us to look over." Because there is of the infinite in 
every soul, possibly accounts for the power of music over 
souls. Their purest and most heavenly feelings have climbed 
out upon the cadencies of music, as upon the rounds of a 
ladder, to find place in the open world, and help the next 



soul in its sorrows and joys, along the way of progress; 
upward toward the goal of the good and beautiful. Mu- 
sic finds almost a sacred place in the individual, the home 
and the social life, and no less powerful place in the national 
life. One phase of the national life in which music is indis- 
pensable is the army. An army without music is an army 
without power, and one in whose banners victory perches 
but seldom. The North American Indian from the stealth 
of their march, had no melody to mark their move- 
ments, as they met the foe, but victory's crown for them 
was the war dance with its rude rhymth. Israel had no in- 
strument to quicken the step as they entered the battle, but 
when the hero returned, there were daughters of the patri- 
ots to sing of the "thousand slain by Saul, and of the tens 
of thousands by David." 

The blood of our blood, and bone of our bone, that "bled and 
broke" for home and native southland, were no exception. 
Only fools are indifferent to means to an end. Those that 
wore the gray were brave as ever fought under a patriot 
banner, but it does not follow that they had no need of en- 
couragements. These were found in the war songs of the 
times. Some of these songs wove into their webs patriot- 
ism, making worthy warriors, and setting forth as the 
grounds of the conflict causes that have ever stirred the 
hearts of the true and brave, and will continue to stir them, 
so long as liberty is a virtue of the soul. If feet dragged as 
they came to the path of patriotic duty, boys and girls were 
near, singing some patriotic words that quickened the steps 
of the faltering feet. If, when the time of parting came, the 
sacrifice of giving wife and babies, or sweetheai'ts, seemed too 
great, often a war song was the tide that moved him across 
the bar, into the sea of the soldier's life. If the letters came 



not from the front to tell of those in the fight, and the home 
hearts were weary to fainting, these war songs were power- 
ful to inspire them to new endurance of the deprivations of 
war. If it were known at home that the life-blood of loved 
ones had been poured out an offering on the country's altar, 
and now it was useless to look longer with tear be-dimmed- 
eyes for those who would never come, the ministry of this 
music dried the tears and staunched the bleeding hearts, 
persuading them to send the youngest son and brother tho' 
all too young for war's cruel ways. Perhaps the best known 
of these songs of the South, was "Maryland, My Maryland," 
written by Jas. Ryder Randall, of Md., who was then teach 
ing in Louisiana. His song is full of the fire that was then 
surging through the South. It was sung wherever thebanner 
of Confederac}' floated, and remains a permanent contribution 
to literature. It was perhaps the first war song written on 
either side. Criticism has been offered that, "the poem is marr- 
ed by its fire-eating terms of vandals, minions, and north- 
ern scum." Such terms may not seem very smooth, nor the 
best of poetry to northern ears, whence comes the criticism; 
but they are true to nature and to the times. Men's souls 
moved deeply then, the fires of patriotism burned hotly; the 
enemie's armies had entered the land we loved — it was no 
time for soft words, they were inadequate. Had Randall's 
poem been such, it would have failed its popularity then, and 
appreciation now. "The Bonny Blue Flag" was composed by 
Harry Macarthy., it came at an opportune time and was 
sung alike through camp and at home. 

"Though conquered we adore it, 
Love the cold dead hands that bore it. 
Weep for those that fell before it," 



And the battle song, inspired by a thing so treasured, is 
still cherished. "The Homespun Dress," sung to the same air, 
was written by Miss Clara Belle Sinclair, of Augusta, and 
was by no means an exaggeration of the state of feelings 
existing then among women of the South. Dixie took the 
form, in which it became popular, at the hands of Dan 
Emmett, of Ohio, his parents beingfrom the South. Dixie stirr- 
ed the hearts of the Southern boys, as they tramped on long 
wearisome marches, it enlivened them in camp. And to-day 
that proud strain is called for, on the grandest occasions, 
and, no doubt, it will survive the centuries. The thinning 
ranks of our veterans, when in reunion, have their soldier life 
brought back most vividW when the band strikes up "Dixie." 
Another very popular piece was, "Lorena," written by 
Rev. Homer Webster. Apathetic, but beautiful love song, 
it voiced the sentiment of many sweethearts, separated by 
war, never to meet again. Some of the most touching songs 
were, "Just before the Battle Mother," "Who will Care for 
Mother Now," "The Dying Soldier's Last Request," and oth- 
ers, too numerous to even mention, though I wish I had 
time to give extracts from all of them. It seems to mea duty 
for us, as Daughters of the Confederacy, to study and know 
more about what our singers have left us. We should not 
only know, but sing and have sung these songs. 

A comparison with any other war songs, will fill us with 
delight over their excellence. They are a mighty factor to 
inspire to noble being, which is noble living and doing. 
They keep burning fresh and bright the fires of patriotism. 
A love that will impel respect and obedience for laws of 
country. That will shame down and shove out any one, 
who, in place of public trust, will dare to do, or to be, less 
than a gentleman. 

Patriotism that will inspire those noble virtuesofhonesty, 
sobriety, and purity. 


DIXIE, 71 

XegenD of tbe fellow jasmine. 


Once on a time in the long- ago, 

A. troop of sunbeams went straying', 
Into a grove in the far Southland, 

With the wind at hide and seek playing 1 . 
So merry were they in frolicsome play, 
They forgot to notice the passing day. - 

The Sun in his chariot rode D3>-, 

With the blushing Day on his breast, 
Their minions flew o'er the crimson sky, 

To unbar the gates of the West ; 
But the truant sunbeams frolicked and played, 
With sprites of the wind in the forest shade. 

A twitter of birds, of good-night calls, 

A stillness, a hush in the air, — 
As though mother Nature held her breath, 

To list to each flower's prayer; 
Then twilight faded and dark grew the night, 
And the sunbeams trembled and cried with fright. 

The West wind sighed,, "Naught can harm you here;" 

The pine trees intoned vesper hymns, 
The truant children of gulden Day, 

Crept and clung to the mossy limbs, 
So cradled and rocked in hammocks of grey, 
The naughty sunbeams all snug and safe lay. 

They gazed in awe at the purpling sky, 

When behold, a lovely surprise! 
From out the grey and mist-woven clouds, 

Were peeping and twinkling bright eyes ; 
The baby stars looked from the milky way, 
In wonder and love at the children of Day. 

The silver chariot of the Moon, 

Rode up from the mystical East, 
With heralds gleaming in bright array, 

As though decked for a marriage feast ; 
In the thicket of pines, the sunbeams bright, 
Played with the moon beams throughout the long night. 


72 DIXIE. 

The stai s were fading out of the sky, 
Rosy clouds had heralded the Day ; 

The sleepy twittering of the birds, 

Had frightened the moon beams away ; 

Then glad morning songs broke over the earth, 

As joyous as those at Creation's birth ! 

Up from the hammocks of gray old moss, 

The penitent sunbeams had fled ; 
They found their mother, the sweet, sweet Day, 

And for her forgiveness they pled. 
She listed to their story of the fair night, 
And in gratitude vowed the pines to requite. 

Up through the earth there stole shoots of green, 
Like little arms trembling to twine ; 

Higher and higher they reached aloft, 
Till they clung to a crooning pine. 

The pine tree quivered and looked up above, 

And thrilled with its first sweet rapture of love. 

Then in the grey moss, fashioned like stars, 
Sweet flowers first opened their eyes ; 

The truant sunbeams clapped their wee hands, 
At this second joyous surprise. 

Rare incense they placed in each golden bell, 

And bade them ever in Southern climes dwell. 

And so the Jasamine flowers were born, 
And tinged by the rays of the sun ; 

No flower that blooms holds such perfume, 
As kindness and sympathy won. 

Wherever there grows the sheltering pine, 

Is clinging a Yellow Jasamine vine. 

Where battles were fought for Freedom's right, 
Where sleep our own heroes in grey, 

Like stars upon our tattered flag, 
Tbe Jasamine flowers doth sway. 

The pines croon their hymns, the stars sing above, 

One Fatherhood, Brotherhood, all is Love! 

Anderson Printing and Stationery Co., 
Anderson, S. ('.